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Melodic Minor Harmonies - i ii III+ IV V vi° vii° / Scale - 1 2 b3 4 5 6 7
1min , 2min , b3aug , 4maj(7) , 5maj(7) , 6dim , 7dim ...
MODULATION CONCEPT - so any basic minor chord can be interpreted as either a 1 or 2 chord interchangeably a whole step apart ,, same with interpreting major chords as the 4 and 5 and any diminished chords as 6 or 7. which makes modulating a whole step super easy with any of these chords, for example ; Amin can be either a 1 or a 2 and could be easily used as a 2-5 (in G melodic minor) OR a 1-4 (in A melodic minor) AND the 3, which is augmented, can be inverted and moved in whole steps which makes this also a nice chord to move and resolve back to a 3 chord. ex. C+ to a D+ resolving to a C#min starts in the key of A melodic minor and ends in B melodic minor, or could treat the C# minor as a 1 chord of C# melodic minor... the possibilities open up even further if you use the chord substitution of moving a diminished chord down a half step and turning it into a dominant chord.
LYDIAN DOMINANT SCALE- cool scale! its the 4th mode of Melodic Minor so the interval relationships are; W , W , W , H . W , which, in my opinion, gives it a kind of WHOLE TONE SCALE sound, but in reality it is a combination of the Lydian scale (major scale with a #4) and part Mixolydian scale (Major scale w a b7) so it works great over dominant chords or augmented 7 chords to give a lydian sound while also complementing the flat 7th.
WHOLE TONE SCALE- scale composed of all whole steps, so for example; C D E F# G# A# B# (or C octave again) , only 2 of these scales since they are symmetrical to themselves. the interval harmonic relationships consist of; M2 M3 A4 A5 A6 A7 .. so is a good choice to play over altered chords for brief periods since it gives a sort of 'dreamy, floaty' sound.